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In addition to neuropsychiatric features, over 50% of patients with 17q21.31 microdeletion also present with various brain structure changes[ Marysia scalloped highwaisted briefs Discount Popular Free Shipping Original Best Sale For Sale Cheapest Price Online luNG4Cic
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]. Furthermore, 50% of patients with the 17q21.31 microdeletion present with microcephaly[ 8 ]. To identify potential morphological alterations of brain regions, we analyzed the brain structure of 8 Del/+ , 10 wt, 11 Del/Dup , and 8 Dup/+ mice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Overall, we found significant differences in total brain volume between the genotypes (F (3, 33) = 14.14, p < 0.001; Del/+ : 458±23 mm 3 , wt: 448±10 mm 3 , Del/Dup : 446±12 mm 3 , Dup/+ : 412±13 mm 3 , brain volumes given as mean±sd). Dup/+ animals showed a globally reduced brain volume in comparison with that of the other genotypes. Using a segmented atlas that divides the brain into 159 separate brain regions[ Discount Outlet Locations Free Shipping Outlet Locations Valentino ruffled mini dress Footlocker Sale Store ZawOe1oLN
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], we examined the 83 structures of at least 1 mm 3 in size. A reduction of the whole brain volume was noticed for Dup/+ animals ( Fig 3a ). Brain structures significantly affected after a correction for multiple testing included the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, cingulate complex, entorhinal cortex, frontal region, and perirhinal cortex. Notably, for the majority of these structures, we observed opposite absolute volume changes in Del/+ and Dup/+ animals in comparison with values determined in wt littermates ( Herno collarless coat Outlet Cheap Footlocker Huge Surprise For Sale Cheap Sale Prices KRC8I
). Relative volumes of the discussed regions are represented in the supplementary information ( S3 Table ).

Fig 3. Differences in whole brain volume and relative volumes (normalized or overall brain volume) for the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, cingulate complex, entorhinal cortex and the frontal region of the 17q21.31 mouse models.

All plots use box-and-whiskers diagrams. The box indicates data that lie within the 25th and 75th percentile. The horizontal line in the box specifies the median of the data, and the whiskers the full range of the data with the individual dots being the outliers. ( A ) Total brain volume is significantly different between the 4 genotypes at 0.1% FDR. ( B ) Relative volumes. For each structure, the following data are shown: on the left a bar graph indicating the relative size of the entire structure/region expressed as a percentage of total brain volume. Significance is based on the f-statistic resulting from comparing the 4 genotypes. NS = not significant, * = significant at 1% FDR, ** = significant at 0.1% FDR. In the center, the 3D surface renderings focus on significant changes for the structure of interest only. In grey the surface of the entire brain, in yellow the surface of the structure/region of interest and in purple all areas inside that structure/region that are significantly different between the genotypes at 0.1% FDR. On the right is a coronal slice through the average MR brain image. All colored regions indicate areas where the relative volume is significantly different between the 4 genotypes at 0.1% FDR. Cohort used included 8 Del/+ , 10 wt, 11 Del/Dup , and 8 Dup/+ animals.

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Department of Surgery

Posted by Stony Brook Surgery on August 3, 2016

Using Minimally Invasive Robotic Technology to Benefit Our Patients

Over the past couple of decades, while the incidence of most head and neck cancers has been falling, oropharynx cancer in the United States has reached epidemic rates, with a 225% increase between 1988 and 2004 and continued increases to date.

The oropharynx cancer so widespread today, however, is different from the classic oropharynx malignancy seen in people who smoked or drank heavily.

Now the most prevalent form of oropharynx cancer — currently three out of four cases — is human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).

OPSCC refers to cancer in the part of the throat just behind the mouth; more technically, cancer of the tonsil, base and posterior one third of the tongue, soft palate, and posterior and lateral pharyngeal walls. Squamous cell carcinoma comprises over 95% of oropharyngeal cancers.

Both men and women can get HPV+ oropharynx cancers, though more males in their 50s, 60s, or 70s are seen. Most do not have a history of smoking or alcohol abuse, and there is sometimes an association with having had multiple sexual partners. Patients were likely infected many years ago with HPV through sexual activity.

The virus can remain latent for decades and then, for some people, eventually lead to HPV+ cancer of the oropharynx.

"Unfortunately there's no screening test like the pap smear for HPV+ oropharynx cancer," explains head and neck cancer surgeon Lukasz Czerwonka, MD , assistant professor of surgery and member of our Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Division . "With HPV infection of the oropharynx, the initial tumor is often too tiny to see, so the cancer isn't caught until it's metastasized."

How Patients Benefit from Our Robotic Program

Surgery is often the first line of treatment for oropharynx disease, and at Stony Brook, 90% or more of HPV+ OPSCC surgeries are trans-oral robotic-assisted procedures.

Ghassan J. Samara, MD , associate professor of surgery, and leader of the Stony Brook Cancer Center's Head and Neck, Thyroid Oncology Management Team , explains:

"Robotic-assisted surgery has really revolutionized the treatment of oropharynx carcinoma. Tumors that used to be very debilitating to remove can now be resected almost entirely between the teeth, often with no external incisions and less trauma to other structures."

Dr. Samara in 2011 was the first surgeon on Long Island to perform trans-oral robotic-assisted procedures.

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KidsHealth / For Teens / Pneumonia
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You may associate pneumonia with dramatic movie scenes involving prolonged hospital stays, oxygen tents, and family members whispering in bedside huddles. It's true that pneumonia can be serious. But more often pneumonia is an infection that can be easily treated at home without having to go to thehospital.

What Is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia (pronounced: noo-MOW-nyuh) is an infection of the lungs. When someone has pneumonia, lung tissue can fill with pus and other fluid, which makes it difficult for oxygen in the lung's air sacs (alveoli) to reach the bloodstream. With pneumonia, a person may have difficulty breathing and have a cough and fever; occasionally, chest or abdominal pain and vomiting are symptoms, too.

Pneumonia is often caused by viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus . Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus , are common causes of pneumonia in young kids and babies.

influenza virus adenovirus respiratory syncytial virus human metapneumovirus

Bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, too. People with bacterial pneumonia are usually sicker than those with viral pneumonia, but they can be treated with antibiotic medications.

You might have heard the terms "double pneumonia" or "walking pneumonia." Double pneumonia simply means that the infection is in both lungs. It's common for pneumonia to affect both lungs, so don't worry if your doctor says this is what you have — it doesn't mean you're twice as sick.

Double pneumonia

Walking pneumonia refers to pneumonia that is mild enough that you may not even know you have it. Walking pneumonia (also called atypical pneumonia because it's different from the typical bacterial pneumonia) is common in teens and is often caused by a tiny microorganism, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (pronounced: my-co-PLAZ-ma noo-MO-nee-ay). Like the typical bacterial pneumonia, walking pneumonia also can be treated with antibiotics.

Walking pneumonia

It's common for a person with pneumonia to start out with something milder like a cough or sore throat — which also can happen in other infections. But pneumonia is a bit worse because the infection goes down into the lungs.

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